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Dynamic Simulation in Chemical Engineering


Dynamic simulation is an extension of steady-state process simulation whereby time-dependence is built into the models via derivative terms i.e. accumulation of mass and energy. The advent of dynamic simulation means that the time-dependent description and control of real processes in real or simulated time are possible. This includes the description of starting up and shutting down a plant, changes ... Read More »

ASTM / American Society for Testing and Materials


There are numerous American Society for Testing and Materials designations cover the specification of wrought materials, forgings and castings used for plate, fittings, pipe and valves.The ASTM standards are directed to dimensional standards, materials and strength considerations. Some of the more material standards referenced are: A 36 Specification for Structural Steel A 53 Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot ... Read More »

EFW Pipe vs ERW Pipe


EFW Pipe vs ERW Pipe:- EFW Pipe Manufacturing Processing of Electric Fusion Welding, also called Continuous Welding begins as coiled steel with appropriate thickness, width and weight is made. To form a continuous ribbon of steel several coils are welded together. Then the steel ribbon is heated to the necessary temperature and formed into an oval. In the next step ... Read More »

ASME B16 Piping Component Standards


Piping component standard developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B16.1 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings B16.3 Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 150 and 300 B16.4 Cast Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250 B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings B16.9 Factory Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings B16.10 Face to ... Read More »

MSS Standard


These are piping and related component standards developed by the Manufacturer’s Standardization Society. The MSS standards are directed at general industrial applications. The pipeline industry makes extensive use of these piping component and quality acceptance standards. SP-6 Standard Finishes for Contact Faces Pipe Flanges and Connecting End Flanges of Valves and Fittings SP-25 Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges ... Read More »

Conversion of Units


Conversion Factor: 1 Meter = 3.28 Feet 1 Meter = 39.37 Inches 1 Meter = 100 Centimeters 1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters 1 Foot = 12 Inches 1 Inch = 2.54 Centimeters 1 Centimeter = 10 Millimeters S.no English – Fraction (Inch) English Decimal (Inch) English (Millimeter) 1. 1/16 0.0625 1.6 2. 1/8 0.125 3.2 3. 1/4 0.25 6.4 4. ... Read More »

Piping Engineers Must Be Check


AREA Definition: A surface covered by specific shape is called area of that shape. i.e. area of square, circle etc. 1. Square: Area of Square = L x L = L2 Where L = L Length of side So if L = 5 cm Then Area = 5 x 5 = 25 cm2 2. Rectangle: Area of Rectangle = L ... Read More »

Test Pressure Detail from Codes


Code Test type Test pressure minimum Test pressure maximum Test pressure holding time Examination ASME B31.1 Hydrostatic(1) 1.5 time design Max allowable test pressure any component or 90 percent of yield 10 minutes Design pressure ASME B31.1 Pneumatic 1.2 times design 1.5 times design or max allowable test pressure any component 10 minutes Lower of 100 psig or design pressure ... Read More »

Abbreviations for Piping Drawings

Abbreviations for Piping Drawings

General S.No Abbreviation Description 1 BOP Bottom of Pipe 2 CL Center Line 3 EL Elevation 4 GR Grade 5 HC Hose Connection 6 ID Inside Diameter 7 MAT’L Materials 8 MTO Materials Take Off 9 REV Revision 10 OD Outside Diameter 11 SPEC Specification 12 STD Standard 13 BW Butt Weld 14 CONC Concentric 15 ECC Eccentric Related Courses ... Read More »

About the CAESAR II Documentation


To address the sheer volume of information available on CAESAR II and present it in a concise and useful manner to the analyst the program documentation is presented in three separate manuals: The User Guide describes the basic operation and flow of the many routines found in CAESAR II. This document provides necessary installation information, gives an overview of the ... Read More »

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