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Tag Archives: Pipe

Dynamic Simulation in Chemical Engineering


Dynamic simulation is an extension of steady-state process simulation whereby time-dependence is built into the models via derivative terms i.e. accumulation of mass and energy. The advent of dynamic simulation means that the time-dependent description and control of real processes in real or simulated time are possible. This includes the description of starting up and shutting down a plant, changes ... Read More »

ASTM / American Society for Testing and Materials


There are numerous American Society for Testing and Materials designations cover the specification of wrought materials, forgings and castings used for plate, fittings, pipe and valves.The ASTM standards are directed to dimensional standards, materials and strength considerations. Some of the more material standards referenced are: A 36 Specification for Structural Steel A 53 Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot ... Read More »

ASME B16 Piping Component Standards


Piping component standard developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers or the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) B16.1 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings B16.3 Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings, Class 150 and 300 B16.4 Cast Iron Threaded Fittings, Classes 125 and 250 B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings B16.9 Factory Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings B16.10 Face to ... Read More »

Conversion of Units


Conversion Factor: 1 Meter = 3.28 Feet 1 Meter = 39.37 Inches 1 Meter = 100 Centimeters 1 Meter = 1000 Millimeters 1 Foot = 12 Inches 1 Inch = 2.54 Centimeters 1 Centimeter = 10 Millimeters S.no English – Fraction (Inch) English Decimal (Inch) English (Millimeter) 1. 1/16 0.0625 1.6 2. 1/8 0.125 3.2 3. 1/4 0.25 6.4 4. ... Read More »

Abbreviations for Piping Drawings

Abbreviations for Piping Drawings

General S.No Abbreviation Description 1 BOP Bottom of Pipe 2 CL Center Line 3 EL Elevation 4 GR Grade 5 HC Hose Connection 6 ID Inside Diameter 7 MAT’L Materials 8 MTO Materials Take Off 9 REV Revision 10 OD Outside Diameter 11 SPEC Specification 12 STD Standard 13 BW Butt Weld 14 CONC Concentric 15 ECC Eccentric Related Courses ... Read More »

Question Related to Non-Destructive Testing

ndt oil and gas

1. Describe different types of destructive and non-destructive tests? Destructive test: bend test, tensile test, impact test, and hardness test. Non-destructive test: DPT, MPT, radiography and ultrasonic test. 2. What are the different types of hardness tests carried out? Brinell Hardness Test. Rockwell Hardness Test. Vicker Hardness Test. 3. What is the relation between Brinell Hardness No. and Rockwell Hardness ... Read More »

Questions Related to Stress Analysis:- Part-2

oilandgasclub.com pipe stress

11. How do you calculate the stress developed due to thermal expansion? Stress developed, Σ = ∈ x α , (α= Δ L/L) ……. Where, E = young’s modulus. Δ L = increase in length due to thermal expansion. L = original length of the pipe. 12. How do you calculate the thermal expansion in a pipe?  Δ L = ... Read More »

Questions Related to Stress Analysis:- Part-1

oilandgasclub Questions Related to Stress

1. What is the objective of stress analysis? A . To ensure that the stresses in piping components in the system are within allowable limits. B. To solve dynamic problems developed due to mechanical vibration, fluid hammer, pulsation, relief valves, etc. C. To solve problems associated due to higher or lower operating temperature as: – I. Displacement stress range. II. ... Read More »

Questions Related to Pipe Under Stress:- Part-1

oilandgasclub.com stress

1. What are primary loads? Mention some of primary loads? These are typically steady or sustained types of loads. These loads have their origin in some force acting on the pipe causing tension, compression, torsion etc leading to normal and shear stress. Primary loads are not self limiting. Some of the primary loads are as:- A. Internal fluid pressure B. External ... Read More »

Question Related to Mechanical Design Fundamentals:- Part–2

mechanical fundamentals

1. How much design temperature shall be considered for the structural parts which are heated by steam, thermic fluid etc? Design temperature shall be the highest expected temperature of the heating media or highest expected body part temperature plus 10C. Here, 10 C is the safety margin. 2. Define proof stress? It is also called 0.2% proof stress. It is the stress ... Read More »

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