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Question Related to Mechanical Design Fundamentals:- Part-1

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1. What are the failures with reference to the structural design?
Failure of a structural part can occur by :-
A. Excessive elastic deformation.
B. Excessive non- elastic deformation.
C. Fracture.
Any design has to guard against these perceived failures.
2. What are the factors upon which the mechanical properties of material are dependent?
Mechanical properties of any material of construction are dependent on :-
A. Chemical composition of the material.
B. Method by which the material is manufactured.
3. What is stress?
It is defined as the applied load per unit cross-section of the specimen. The common unit are psi (pound per square inch), kpa, Mpa, kg / cm
4. What is strain?
For tensile load, it is the ratio of increase in length of the specimen under constant sustained load to the original length of the specimen before the load is applied. For compressive load, it the ratio of decrease in length to the original length under sustained load. Strain is thus an observable and measurable quantity as the extension or compression of the specimen can be directly measured. It is a dimensionless quantity..

5. What is upper yield point with reference to above stress-strain graph (Ultimate Tensile Strength)?
The highest stress that the metal can withstand under sustained load without continuing to elongate under same load is called the upper yield point.
6. What is allowable stress?
It is defined as ultimate tensile strength divided by factor of safety. The safety factor is obviously greater than 1. Design which ensure that the stress value anywhere in the structure is less than this allowable stress are considered safe as they do not allow the structure element to come anywhere close to the point where plastic instability leading to disruption or disintegration of element would set in.
7. What is the value of allowable stress if yield stress or 0.2% proof stress value is available at design temperature?
If the yield stress or 0.2% proof stress value is available at design temperature, the same shall be divided by a safety factor of 1.5 to get allowable stress.
8. What is the value of allowable stress if the yield stress is not available at design temperature but is available at room temperature?
If the yield stress is not available at design temperature but is available at room temperature, the same shall be divided by safety factor of 3.0 to get allowable stress.

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