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# Question Related to Equipment and Piping Layout:- Part-2

9. What is line routing diagram?
A line routing diagram is a schematic representation of all process and utility – piping system drawn on a copy of plot plan. This diagram does not show the exact locations, elevations or interference but it locates the most congested area.
10. How do you calculate the width of pipe rack?
W = (f X n X s) + A + B.
…Where, f : safety factor
= 1.5 if pipes are counted from PFD.
= 1.2 if pipes are counted from P&ID.
n : number of lines in the densest area up to size 450NB.
= 300 mm (estimated average spacing)
= 225 mm (if lines are smaller than 250 NB )
A : additional width for: –
 : lines larger than 450 NB.
: For instrument cable tray / duct.
: For electrical cable tray.
s : 300 mm (estimated average spacing)
: 225 mm (if lines are smaller than 250 NB)
B : future provision
= 20% of (f X n X s) + A
11. Up to what limit the width of pipe rack is restricted? What type of arrangement shall be done if the width of rack calculated is more then the restricted limited?
Normally pipe rack width is limited to 6.00 Mtrs. If the width of rack calculated is more then the arrangement shall be done in multiple layers. The arrangements adopted are: –
A. Single column rack ‘T’ type.
B. Double column rack with a single tier.
C. Double column rack with a double tier.
12. How much space is kept in between column of pipe rack?
Normally, 5 to 6 mtrs. spacing is kept in between the column of pipe rack.

13. At which location the wide spacing (spacing more than the normal) in between the column is necessary?
14. How much headroom clearance is required under the following type of crossing?
A. Structures / pipe lines inside operating area.
B. From top of the rail.
C. Above crest of road for crane movement.
D. Above crest of road for truck movement.
E. Above crest of road between process units.
The headroom normally provided is as: –
A. Structures / pipe lines inside operating area. : 2200
B. From top of the rail. : 7000
C. Above crest of road for crane movement. : 7000
D. Above crest of road for truck movement. : 6000
E. Above crest of road between process units. : 4500
15. What sort of drawing / layout is required for piping layout?
The following drawing / layout are required for piping layout.
A. Piping & instrumentation diagram (P& ID).
B. Equipment layout.
C. Piping specification.
D. Equipment drawing.
E. Vendor requirement for proprietary equipment.
16. What care shall be taken while routing piping for instruments?
Following points shall be taken care of while routing piping for instruments.
A. Flow measuring instrument needs certain straight length on upstream & downstream of the instruments. Normally, 15D on the upstream and 5D on the downstream is kept.
B. The pipe line in which flow meters such as magnetic flow meters, vortex meters, turbinemeters etc are located shall be routed in such a way that the line must be filled with liquid all the time. The pipe line shall be supported with robust support on both side of the meter.
C. Control valves are located at grade e.g. at about 500mm height from finished ground to provide convenient access for operation and maintenance. Block and bypass valve shall be located to have easy operation/access from the grade. Locating control valve on the vertical line shall be avoided.
D. Isolation valves for level gauges and pressure gauges shall be made accessible. All primary and secondary indicators of pressure, temperature, flow, level, positioners etc shall be visible from the operating area.
E. Rotameter shall be placed on vertical line and the inlet shall be from the bottom of the instrument.