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It consists of bolts, full threaded stud bolts and nuts.
Bolts have hexagonal or round head while studs are without heads.
One stud with two nuts forms a set of fastener.
Fasteners are used for flange joints in piping to retain flanges and gaskets.
Threading is done on the studs and bolts by two methods.
1. Cut threads using cutting tool on lathe.
2. Thread rolling using rollers on thread rolling machine.
[A] Design & dimension standard:
ANSI/ASME B 16.5 For studs (length & diameter)
ANSI/ASME B 18.2.1 For thread types with details of studs & bolts
ANSI/ASME B 18.2.2 For nuts
[A]  Material:
(1) CS ASTM A 193 Gr B7 For stud
ASTM A 194 Gr 24 For nut
(2) LTCS ASTM A 320 Gr L7 For stud
ASTM A 194 Gr 4 For nut
(3) LAS ASTM A 193 Gr B16 For stud
ASTM A 194 Gr 4 For nut
(4) SS ASTM A 193 Gr B8 For stud
ASTM A 194 Gr 8 For nut

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